**Petrakov N.Ya., Shagalov G.L **(Moscow) * Change
of payments system and calculations between the SNG countries – the base
of their integration
*The wrongs of Russian economic policy 1991–1995 towards other
SNG countries are investigated in this paper. An by-step approach to forming
the Payment union of SNG countries is proposed as concrete means for each
mentioned step.

**Bobkova I.A., Levin M.I. **(Moscow) * Experimental
macroeconomics: a survey of some problems and methods
*The article is devoted to a broad survey of some problems of
experimental economics have been developed in the researches of Western
economists in the 80th–90th. We concentrated at the literature concerninig
experimental testing of such topics as different forms of market structure,
public choice theory, public goods allocation, etc.

**Tatevosyan G.M. **(Moscow) * Economic
efficiency of investments using optimizational methods
*The author siggests to take into account some invest factors,
wich are ignored by theory and practice today. There are optimization of
subprojects and products structure, resource manoeuvre, optimal profit
reinvestment. The optimization models are described and the count results
are adduced. Sources: Arhangelsk region woodworking enterprises data. A
special attention is paid to the problems of information preparation.

**Bogdanova T.K., Goldenberg A.I., Kuznetsova
K.S., Epshtein A.S. **(Moscow) ** Multiplicativity
in economic measurements**There are described methods of economic measurement which
make possible to contribute to the solution of socio-economic problems
by purely economic means. Applicability of suggested methods is illustrated
with reference to the solution of the specific problem of measuring differentia
of value of town land depending on the type of its use.

**Bagrinovsky K.A., Prokopova V.S. **(Moscow) * Russian
economy: investigations of intersectoral exchange pecularities
*The analysis of the present data for Russia's economy gives
evidence ot the increasing sectoral inequality. The methods of achievement
on the simultaneous state of the market equilibrum and equivalent intersectoral
exchange are studied in this paper.

**Zherebin V.M. **(Moscow) ** Households
economy and means of it's macromodelling **This paper introduces and analyses the concept of households
economy. In this connection: some exjsting interpretations of the term
of household are presented; main functions of households are observed;
the macroeconomic effect of households activities is being evaluated. The
description of procedures of households income presentation in Social Accounting
Matrices is given together with that of the models for the analysis and
projection of households expenditures and consumption.

**Egorova N,E., Kirillova A.N., Faerman E.Ju.,
Fontana K.A., Khachatrian S.R. **(Moscow) ** Imitation
system of balanced solutions in housing reconstruction in large eities
during the transition period**Synchronization of economic reforms requires adoption of
socially acceptable solutions, which are consist in purposes, time deadlines
of their achievement, and quantitative characteristics. Solution of housing
problem and reconstruction as its component, utilizes tools of imitation
modelling. In the system of economic-mathematical models, proposed by the
authors, algorythm of balanced solutions adoption, which takes into consideration
demand on reconstruction, sources of financing, and social guarantees to
the population under the conditions of emerging market relations is worked
out.

**Hare P. **(USA) ** Conceptual
issues in the analysis of higher education: application to Russia**Higher education in Russia faces a major finding crisis,
and much of the system requires reform both to improve incentives and governance
structures, and to prepare for an important period of expansion. In order
to analyse some aspects of the economic behaviour of higher education institutions,
this paper introduces a simple formal model of an institution, specifying
the production function – based on the outputs of graduates and research
– the objectives, and the budget constraint. This framework allows several
possible types of institution to be studied, and illuminates some of the
key issues facing reformers. Most importantly, institutions are considered
to behave as rational agents responding to contraints and incentives, and
this must be taken into account in the design of policy.

**Golshtein E.G., Sokolov N.A. **(Moscow) ** A
decomposition algorithm for solving multicommodity production-and-transportation
problem**A new algorithm for solving multicommodity production-and-transportation
problems is described. The algorithm is based on primal-dual decomposition.
The reseelts of its numerical testing are given.

**Skokov V.A. **(Moscow) ** The
versions of level method for minimization of nonsmooth convex functions
and their numerical study**The numerical comparison results of theoretical and practical
estimations of convergence rate of level method is presented on the large
set of test problems for minimization of nonsmooth convex functions. An
influence of parameters of levels value computing, of piecewise linear
model cleaning, of ways of auxiliary problems solution is studed on a level
method convergence rate. A level method is compared with subgradient method,
with Kelley method and with two versions of bundle method.

**Glaziev S.Ju. **(Moscow) ** Technological
changes in Russian economy**On the base of conception of the technical-economic development
as a consequential technological systems the author examins an impact of
economic policy in Russia last years on this process and proposes the quantative
estimation of resulting changes.

**Makarov V.L., Kleiner G.B. **(Moscow) ** Barter
in Transition Economy: the features and trends**The scope, factors and consequencies of increase in barter
transactions in Russian economy of 90th are analyzed. The special features
of macroeconomic processes and the behavior of microeconomic agents in
"barterized" economy are considered. The dependence between the
barter limitation and industrial institutional stucture formation problems
is established.

**Ovsienko Ju.V. Olevskaya E.Ě. **(Moscow) ** On
financial relationships neutral to inflation**The paper considers such negative consequences of Russian
inflation caused by special features of financial policy as the specific
monetary floods from citizens to the state, banks and so on. The possibility
of creation of the system free from these defects is discussed.

**Tokarev V.V. **(Moscow) ** Macroeconomic
balancing of taxes, wages and pensions**The set of materially and financially balanced taxes, wages,
pensions and other state expenditures is analitically derived for the economy
which is smoothly envolving under arbitrary changed prices.

**Pugachev V.F., Pitelin A.K. **(Moscow) ** Inflation
in the conditions of uncomplete competition**In the earlier authors' conception about inflation in Russia
an assumption of full monopolization of economics is substituted by the
strongless hypothethis of uncomplete competition. Correspondently the producer's
behavior is changing. The results of a variant of calculations are presented
in this paper.

**Gavrilecz Ju.N., Efimov B.A. **(Moscow) ** The
variations of individuals preference in social medium**In this paper the authors investigate socio-psychologic
and economic attitudes in social groups when individuals are interacting.
The existence of stable social equiibrium and homeostatics inside state
are prooved by linear model.

**Polterovich V.M. **(Moscow) ** Differentiation
of consumption patterns in open economy with obsolute technologies**It is suggested a model of open economy with two sectors
– mining sector and manufacturing one. The profit of every sector is distributed
among its employees. A part of mining sector productions is exported and
some consumption goods are imported. We give a classifications of equilibrium
regimes arisen in the system, and consider the influence of technology
changes and export quotas on equilibrium prices and outputs and on differentiation
of incomes and consumption patterns. It is shown that regimes of maxima]
income differentiation and maximal differentiation of consumption patterns
do not usually coincide. The model helps to explain some specific features
of the Russian transition process.

**Voronovitsky M.M **(Moscow) ** Equilibrium
trajectories of the macroeconomical model with the production lag and the
state budjet deficit**Macroeconomic model with the production lag is considering,
Dificit of the state budjet and absence of investment are supposing. Dinamics
of equilibrium trajectories, along which real pure additional costs are
constant is investigated. It is shown that the trajectory converges to
steady-state, and some properties of a steady-state are studed.

**Lebedev S.D. **(Moscow) ** An
ordered enumeration method of integer linear programming**Two modifications of the ordered enumeration method are
considered. They are based on the Lagrangean decomposition and essentially
reduce the enumeration.

**Tikhomirov V.P., Khrustalev E.Ju. **(Moscow) ** Hypertext
information modelling of economic systems: the problems of theory and practice**There are considered questions on the theoretical substantation
and practical realization of program-mathematical instrument, enabling
to design and to process hypertext information models of economic systems
of various purposes.

**Gusev A.A. **(Moscow) ** Assimilative
potential of environment and property rights on nature**Assimilative potential of environment (APE) is defined as
the specific type of natural resources. It's economic sense is clarified.
Different options for taxes on APE use and their place in overall tax reform
are considered. Economic functions of designed system of property rights
are described. Different approaches for economic assessment of some natural
resources are proposed as foundation for legal economic relationships.
The links between property rights functions and the most important elements
of economic mechanism ofsustainable development.

**Intrilligator M. **(Moscow) ** Reform
of Russian economy : role of market institutes**The paper discusses the reform of the Russian economy, its
severe economic decline, and how the transition to a market economy moght
be realized. Emphasizes the institutions of a market economy and suggests
that the current 'shock threpy' reform program of prices, and privatization
of enterprises will not succeed in the absence of such institutions. These
institutions include a system of property rights a legal system, sound
currency, legal and regulatory agencies to prevent corruption and monopolization,
social safety net, and entities providing banking and credit, classified
advertising, accounting, insurance, and other services.

**Balatsky E.V. **(Moscow) ** Inflation
taxes and economic growth **In this paper the author describes the influence of the
so coiled inflation tax on the economic agents business activity. The author
develops the idea by introducing in the traditional understanding of the
tax two additional definitions – active and passive inflation taxes. That
helps him to explain phenomena of the inflationary devaluation of the turnover
capital of economic units and the roll the process in the beginning of
the production crises and the business sycle mechanism. He suggests a simple
model to account the maximum accepted production-realisation period duration
to support non zero economic growth.

**Varshavsky Ŕ.E. **(Moscow) ** Analysis
and modeling of inflation in Russi**On the basis of analysis of the domestic and foreign economic
and statistical information two models of inflation in Russia are offered:
open-loop econometric model necessary for deeper understanding problems
of stabilization, and closed-loop macroeconomic model enabling to choose
rates of inflation with the purpose to cease recession of production at
the present stage of transition period. The estimations of parameters of
models for Russia are executed with using monthly statistical data.

**Voronovitsky M.M. **(Moscow) ** The
cross ownership as a mechanism of the vertical integration at the goods
and capital markes**The cross ownership of th two enterprises (the supplyer
and th consumer) is considered. It is showed that under some condition
the distribution of ownership is sutisfied to the relations which are established
in the paper. The cross ownership stimulates the stability of deliveries
and the consumer s investment to reduce of the supplyer's costs.

**Lukashin Ju.P. **(Moscow) ** Analysis
of probability distributions of cash flow differences: adaptive histogram,
optimization problems**Adaptive methodology of investigation of investigation of
nonstationary probability distributions of stochastic time series is presented.
Problem of optimal division of number axe for histogram construction is
solved. Criterion of optimality of histogram adaption is developed. Algorithm
and routine were created and applied to research the cash flows.

**Dementiev N.P. **(Moscow) ** On
the specification of the budget deficit under inflation of debts**The scheme of origin and utilization of the inflation tax
in modern Russia is considered in the paper. The main part of the tax came
into the federal budget in the form of the Central Bank credits under negative
real interest rate. The deficit of the federal budget was specified – with
regard to the inflation tax. It is demonstrated that increase difference
between the interst rate on loans and this on deposits – as one of the
forms of the inflation tax – destructively affected the savings processes
in 1993–1994.

**Serov S.I. **(Moscow) ** Optimal
price on sale by exponential demand**The solution of the problem for the decision making of the
optimum price with maximum of the gain under exponential law for decreasing
demand is suggested. Optimal price in this case satisfy approximately one
third of buyers having the possibility to bye the commodity by th prime
cost. On the base of statistics we have a conclusion about exponential
distribution of population by their incomes.

**Bulavsky V.A. **(Moscow) ** Demand
structure and equilibrium in oligopolist model**An oligopolistic model is examined in which not only equilibrium
price and outputs but also the subjects' coefficients of their influence
upon the market price arc determined. Under rather weak assumptions the
equilibrium existence is established. The equilibrium price dynamics irnlied
by the demand structure variations is also investigated.

**Belenky V.Z., Slastnikov A.D. **(Moscow) ** Model
of optimal investment in new technology project**For one-sector linear growth model a problem of investments
to a project of transition lo new, more effective, technology is studied.
The investment is described as a random process. The stationary optimal
investment strategy is obtained. There are three different kinds of this
strategy, in dependence on a certain relation parameters of the model.
In particular there is a "risky area', which leads the system to a
bankruptcy with some positive probability.

**Guriev S.M., Pospelov I.G. **(Moscow) ** A
model of banking in a stagnating economy**A model of banking in an economy without growth and inflation.
In this case the bank can obtain profits from insuring current operations
of clients. We study the role of banks in formation of financial-industrial
groups. It is shown that unlike conventional models of integration, in
the present model of economy without growth and capital investment, more
natural is integration of firms workings in independent markets rather
than vertical integrations.

**Nemirovsky A.S. **(Moscow) ** A
method for general quasiconvex minimization**A level-type method for finding

**Zjitkov V.A., Korneychuk A.A. **(Moscow) ** Tchenology
of simulation gaming for computer economic models**Common activity of experts and computer experiments with
models is suggested for investigation and decision of complex economic
problems. The special technology of simulation gaming is supposed with
usage of computer models as catalizator of experts activity and mathematic
methods are applied for extraction the most real expert opinion.

Investigation of important real problem for Russia economy illustrates application of the technology.

**Pervozvanskiy A.A., Barinov V.U. **(St.-Peterburg) ** Forecasting
and optimization on the market îf short-term bonds**A model for forecasting the ratelon short-term government's
bonds and the forming of optimal (by Markovic–Tobin criteria) portfolio
is suggested. Results of forecast and calculations of the optimal portfolio
for Russian GKO market are given.

**Staroverov O.V. **(Moscow) ** The
conditions îf lafe and population mobility**There are two convenient method to describe intergroups
population mobility. The first method is based on a "distance"
between groups, the second one is based on the utility functions or attraction
coefficients. Both methods describe satisfactory population behaviour,
but sometimes the first one is better and sometimes the second. In the
paper a short survey of this methods of population movement modeling and
researching is given. The cecond method, connecting the population transition
intensity to the markets of labor, inhabitation, attraction coefficients
and so on, are considered. The properties of introdused attraction coefficients,
helpful to estimate the parameters by observed population transitions between
some groups, are described. The use of introdused parameters is demonstated
by concrete calculations for some real data.

**Kachalov R.M. **(Moscow) ** Industrial
risk management**It is considered basic concept of industrial risk management
theory. The risk factors and risk management methods classification are
investigated. It is done the practical recommendations for industrial risk
management.

**Kuznetsov I.V., Pisarenko V.F., Rodkin M.V.
**(Moscow) ** Methods of loss evaluation from
disasters of different type**A method of statistical estimation of cumulative losses
\Sum

**Eismont O.A. **(Moscow) ** Uncertainty
of environmental damage and energy production structure**A problem of forming energy production structure is considered
when production and consumption of energy are accompanied by the risk of
environmental damage. The corresponding model, based on investment portfolio
theory, is suggested. Impacts of several factors (energy production costs,
foreign trade) on energy production structure are analyzed.

**Beklaryan L.A., Treyvish M.I. **(Moscow) ** Model
of functioning factoring transactions**This research covers vital questions of factoring services
market analyses. It also provides detailed analyses of current level of
open account payment terms in Russia and forecast of further development
of factoring as a financial and credit management system supporting open
account terms. Del credere, currency and political risks have been analysed
from the point of view of their influence on factoring transactions efficiency.
For del credere and currency risks analyses mathematical model has been
created with final task of definition of boundary value problem for differential-difference
equations.

**Aivazian S.A. **(Moscow) ** Forming
model of distribution of Russian population by income per capita (expert-statistical
approach)**The problem of analysis and modelling of Russian population
distribution by income per capita is examined under the conditions of transition
to market economy. The singularities of transition phase in the Russian
economy include, in particular, the high fraction of underground incomes
and the practical impossibility of authentic initial statistical data collection.
These singularities stipulate the necessity of the expert-statistical using
and the expediency of application of the log-normal mixture – model for
dc.scriplion the real disiribution by income per capita of Russian population.
A basing ol model, the procedures of mathematics-statistical analysis and
the results of the experimental study of suggested approach are presented.

**Voronovitskiy M.M. **(Moscow) ** Equilibrium
trajectories of the two sectors macroeconomical model with the production
lag**Macroeconomical model with two sectors of production (row
matherial extracting sector and manufacturing sector) and production lags
are considering. Deficit of the state budjet and absent of a investition
are supposing. Dinamics of a equilibrium trajectories, along which real
pure additional costs of each sectors are constants are investigating.
It is show, that the trajectory converge to steady – state. It is show
also, that reduce of production with growth of ratio row material prices
to ready – made good prices is possible, when trajectory is converging
to steady – state.

**Popov V.A. **(Kirovsk) ** Abolita
criterion of the incomes distribution**The optimum plan of the works minimally distinguished from
given – "ideal" – and ensuring "ideal" demanded (required)
to the profit, is established given, it will be formed as a result ftof
addition of the incomes from performance of each work minus the premium
to its executors. Dependence of size of this compensation on the brought
income approcsimate by sedate function.

**Golshtein E.G. **(Moscow) ** A
method for solving a general fractional-linear programming problem**A maximization method for the function of minimum of m fractional
– linear functions on a polytope is presented. Each step of the method
involves maximization of a fractional – linear function on the polytope
along with a linear and quadratic programming problems having the same
number of variables m. Step k results in finding a point of the polytope
for which the difference between the value of the problem's functional
at this point and its optimal value is \Delta

**Yemets O.A. **(Poltava) ** A
cutting method for combinatorial optimization problems**It is considerate a cutting method for optimal problems
with a linear goal function, linear edishional Constreints on euclidean
combinatorial sits thet belong to the sit of verteshes of some convex polihedron.

**Skokov V.A. **(Moscow) ** The
versions of level method for solution of general nonsmooth problems of
convex programming and their analysis**The numerical comparison results of five constrained level
method versions is presented. The practical estimation of convergence rate
of level method is presented on the set of test problems of convex programming
with 5<

**Urintsoff A.I. **(Moscow) ** Structural
analysis and design technique for distributive economic information systems
(on the sample of the system of collection board of Central Bank of Russia)**This article presents the results of construction of the
system for multy-level distributive processing of financial and economic
information on the base of SADT (structureal analysis and design technique)
metodology with using the CASE (computer aided software engineering) tools.
The article^ives the description of modelling of new computer technology
of economic subdivisions functioning on the base of decomposition of primary
industrial and financial accounting.

**Mayevskiy V.I., Kazhdan M.Ya. **(Moscow) ** The
evolution of macrogenerations (taking the economy of the USA as an example)**To develop the ideas of evolutionists – followers of Schumpeterian
tradition, an attempt is made in the paper to describe the economy at large
as a set of specific subsystems, namely macrogenerations. Those subsystems
posses the following features: first, each macrogeneration is born, lives
and eventually dies like a living creature; second, each macrogeneration
produces a part of the GNP and the totality of simultaneously living macrogenerations
produces the whole GNP. Correspondingly, the dynamics of the sum of the
products of all macrogenerations is identical to that of the GNP. The economic
meaning of the concept of macrogeneration is elucidated, and a model is
construed that imitates the behavior of macrogenerations. Using this model
(on the basis' the information about the behavior of the GNP of the USA
during the period of 1870–1994) a representation of the American economy
is obtained as a system consisting of the set of macrogenerations.