ABSTRACTS

Dmitry S. Lvov. Economic Manifesto: The Future of the Russian Economy.
The paper is devoted to the analysis of positive and negative aspects of both socialist and capitalist doctrines, as well as economic-cultural contradictions of the modern stage of post-industrial society evolution. The author formulates feasible prospects of Russia's economic development on the basis of intensive formation of the carrying stratum within the nation, the broad use of the currently idle production capacities, capable of economic employment, and the country's natural-resource potential and its territory, as well as on the strategy of mutually supporting development of two export-oriented economic sectors: fuels-raw materials and military-industrial complexes. It is proposed to restore the institution of landed property in Russia, as well to use rents of all employed resources, accumulated through the State Finance system, for the whole society's purpose.

Victor M. Polterovich. Towards a New Theory of Reforms.
Recent studies of processes of economic reforms testified that realization of liberal school recipes resulted in nonadequate losses. Basing on these studies,the author singles out a number of fundamental mistakes of the neoliberal conception. The neoliberals ignored costs of institutional transformations; they thought that creation of the market law framework was sufficient to form efficient institutions; they overestimated the role of macroeconomic policy to the detriment of institutional development; they did not consider possibilities of " institutional conflicts" as a result of institutional borrowing from other cultures; they did not take into account that efficient state is necessary for reforms to be successful. The theory of transition economies is now itself in transition to a new understanding of goals, possibilities, and technologies of reforms. Using the analysis conducted, the author outlines the most important directions of necessary transformations of Russian economic institutions.

Tatyana G. Dolgopiatova. Small Business as the Source of Institutional Innovations in the Russian Economy.
The article examines the specifics of small business sector institutional development in the transitional economy of Russia. It shows that small business adjustment has brought about a number of economic institutions, for example, business networks and vertically integrated structures. But business associations as a fully-fledged institution representing and protecting the interests of small business have not been established yet. Business ties and transactions are maintained through informal contracts, businessmen' personal relations. This practice has triggered the development of the shadow economy. A similar institutional development of the sector has had mainly negative results. The analysis has used the results of formalized surveys and in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs and small business managers held by IPSSA (with the participation of the article's author) in 1992 to 1998.

Valery G. Grebennikov. The Magnificet Monopoly (Essay of the Statist).
In this paper written as an essŕy , the author addresses to an acute issue of what the state is and where the limits of its activities in the economy and other spheres of social life extend. As the starting point, Max Weber's definition of the concept is used. While analysing the competing models of the state as the «instrument of the class domination» or »contract sociale», the author finds them to be unadequate, the crucial point being that both these models are characterized in the paper as ideologic reflections of two polars of totalitarianism: «totalitarian state» and the «totalitarian economy» where the contract form of social relations dominates over all dimensions of social life, including political sphere.

Evgenie V. Semenov. Russian Economic Science in the Light of RFH Competition.
The results of RFH (Russian Foundation for Humanities) competitions which have revealed the most active and creative part of Russian social and economics scientists, could be compared with results of a large scaled and representative study in the science of science. The most urgent problems of Russian economic science, revealed by RFH competitions, were presented in the article with the help of RFH unique informational data base on humanities. The main conclusion runs that qualitative changes in scientific research subject-matter and in knowledge structures in general should have an affect on institutional organization of economic science. RFH informational data base might be useful for state and department scientific policy elaboration and correcting.

Dmitry S. Lvov, Yury V. Ovsienko. On the Main Directions of Socioeconomic Transformations.
It is shown that one of the main causes of the Russian economy inefficiency, total corruption and stealing and etc. is the activities of a group of people who evade the regulations of law. In the current conditions they extract revenues far exceeding the results of their actions, which violates the basic requirement of the efficient economy. There are also discussed the directions of socio-economic transformations making it possible to return the country to the path of efficient development.

Igor K. Lavrovski. On Sovereignty of Russia.
Market reform is not feasible without and outside of the strong statehood. Federal power bodies must be modernized and reinforced to make them capable of handling a sweeping structural economic change. Russia shall adopt a policy of two speeds: "soft landing" while maintaining survival chances for enterprises inherited from the Soviet system plus strong government support for new market leaders being established. Federal reform and large-scale economic change will require a recreation of renewed system of economic analysis and planning.

Alexandra Benham, Lee Benham. Property Rights in Transition Economy: Comments on What Economists Know.
This article deals with the problem of property rights in transition economy distribution. The authors consider some historical examples and analyse property rights of land, their connection with transaction costs. The problem of privatisation is discussed On historical retrospective the authors consider the examples of reforms realisation and their consequences.

Soltan S. Dzarasov. Michal Kalecki: Life and Scientific Endowment.
The paper expounds the importance of intellectual legacy of M. Kalecki ,which is connected not only with Keynes but also with Marx, Tugan-Baranovski and R.Luxemburg .The author shows the Marxist roots of Kaleckianism, and then analyses in details Kalecki's own contribution to solving the problem of effective demand, business cycle, investments, pricing and economic growth. The feasibility of Kalecki's models and ideas, their appropriateness in the current social economic conditions is of particular importance.

Olga N. Vershinskaya. Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics in Europe, ABCDE in Europe. 21-23 June 1999 Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics-Europe (ABCDE) took place in Paris. The aim of the conference was to call researchers for participation in the development of a new approach to rendering economic help to developing countries, based on the linkage between financial, structural and social issues. From the analysis of papers and presentations key conclusions of the conference are summerised.


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